Mushroom and its cultivation in India (2023)


In this article we will discuss about mushrooms and their cultivation in India.

meaning of mushrooms:

mushrooms arethe fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi and are specifically called basidiomas (sing, basioma). They form only during certain periods of the year when conditions are favorable, and they are brightly colored. Mushrooms can be edible or inedible, poisonous or non-poisonous.

Poisonous mushrooms are popularly known as 'poison mushrooms'. The simple mushroom has the fruiting body that looks like an umbrella. The fruiting body contains spores that are invisible to the naked eye. These spores fall on the substrate, germinate under suitable conditions and send out root-like exploratory strands of mycelium in all directions. Gradually, the fruiting body of the fungus appears as a small white ball.


As it grows larger, a stem (stipe) is produced, and later the cap (pileo) begins to open like an umbrella tearing off the delicate membrane or veil (or velum).

Inside the cap, delicate gills (or lamellae) develop that somewhat resemble the spokes of a wheel radiating from the stem. The gills turn dark in color as spores appear on them. When they reach maturity, the cap of the mushroom begins to flatten. The spores are eventually released into the soil in their millions.

Although millions of spores are produced and distributed, most of them do not survive due to unavailability of favorable conditions and other factors. Even when the spores germinate, their mycelium is very sensitive and can be attacked by other fungi, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes. In fact, even when the growth is firmly established, there are seasons when only a few fungi survive in the field.

Why are mushrooms eaten?

Why have mushrooms become popular as a food? Is it due to the changing eating habits of modern people under current circumstances, or have people developed some special attraction to them? Mushrooms are becoming popular not only for their taste and taste, but also for their nutritional value.


Like many other vegetables, mushrooms contain a high proportion of water in addition to other components. They generally contain more protein (about 51%) than many other comparable fruits or vegetables (dry weight) and as such can be claimed to be a "protective food".

Mushrooms are known to be one of the best plant sources of nicotinic acid and riboflavin (vit. B12), a good source of pantothenic acid and a good source of vitamins B, C, K, biotin and thiamine. It appears from the literature that its vitamins are well retained during the cooking, canning, drying and freezing processes.

In some cases, linoleic acid has been found to be the major fatty acid component. The carbohydrate contents, however, vary between 28 and 76%. In addition, mushrooms, being completely devoid of starch, are an ideal dish for diabetic patients.

They also contain an adequate amount of minerals, lipids, and folic acid. Like many vegetables, they can be stewed or battered, fried or sandwiched, used in soup or “puréed”, in sauce, and also in roasted tomatoes stuffed with mushrooms.

Commercial Mushroom Production:

Today, mushroom cultivation is carried out commercially in many countries and world production of mushrooms is estimated at over 300,000 metric tons. As stated above, only a few species are commercially cultivated compared to the number of fungi known.

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The most commonly cultivated mushrooms are: Volvariella volvacea (the rice straw mushroom) in India, China, and Southeast Asia; Agaricus brunnescens (A. bisporus; the bottom fungus), trade name of the wild species A. campestris because the latter, when artificially cultivated, shows notable alterations in its morphology and physiology; Lentinus edocles (Shii-take) in China and Japan.

Straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) is grown on straw, Shii-take mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on logs and button mushroom (Agaricus brunnescens) on composted horse manure.

In Europe and North America, mushroom growing has become a huge industry; In Britain and the US, large quantities of mushrooms are available for canning and food manufacturing, as well as for direct consumption. Several million pounds of Shii-take are produced annually in Japan and China.

mushroom cultivation in india:

In India, mushroom cultivation is in progress. Impressive work is being done in states like Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. Our country is endowed with two distinct climates and seasons, namely winter and summer. Accordingly, we can divide the cultivation of mushrooms and we can easily grow them under natural conditions almost all year round.

Volvariella spp. (Paddy Straw Mushroom) can be grown in summer when the temperature ranges between 28°C and 49°C; Pleurotus spp. (Dhingri) can be grown in winter when the temperature is 20° to 30°C; and Agaricus bisporus (Mushroom) can be grown in winter when the temperature ranges between 15°C and 25°C.

1. Culture of rice straw fungus (Volvariella spp.):

The steps involved in the cultivation of the rice straw fungus are: choice of the substrate, preparation of the bed and cultivation, aftercare of the beds, harvesting and marketing.

Choice of substrate:

Rice straw is considered the best; others that can be used are wheat straw, jowar, maize, rye straw, biogases from sugar cane, tobacco and banana leaves.


Bed preparation and cultivation:

Firstly, hand-harvested rice straw, 3-4 feet long, well-dried and disease-free, is taken to prepare its bundles, 35 bundles of rice straw are required for one bed and each bundle should have a weight from 1 to 1.5 kg. . The packets are soaked in water for 8 to 16 hours, removed from the water, washed with fresh water, and the excess water is allowed to drain off. (Figure 37.2).

Now, a bed is made by placing four layers of rice straw bundles one on top of the other; each layer contains 8 packets. The seed bottle is opened and raked with a wool or glass rod. Now the roe is sprinkled by hand around the edge of the bed about 10 cm. from the edge and continuing up to 23 cms. inside. Therefore, the central part has been left for spawning in the first layer.


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The dusted seed is covered with a light coating of 'besan' (gram powder). The second, third and fourth layers are also prepared in the same way as in the case of the 1st but the difference with the 4th layer is that the spraying of the seed is carried out on the entire surface instead of the periphery as in the case from the rest of the layers.

The layer must also be dusted with the gram powder and must be covered with a thin layer of straw up to 8 cm. thickness. This is also done with the remaining three bales of straw.

After bedding care:

The water is sprayed 2-3 times in hot days and 1-2 times in rainy season. If necessary, 0.1% Malathion and 0.2% Ditano Z-78 are sprayed to combat insects, pests and other diseases.


Harvest and Marketing:

Culture begins 10-12 days after spawning and lasts up to 15-20 days. The mushroom is harvested at the bud stage or just after crown rupture by twisting so no broken pieces remain in the beds, otherwise bacterial rot usually starts and spreads to other healthy mushrooms.

After harvesting, mushrooms must be used within 8 hours or kept at 10-15°C for 24 hours, otherwise they will go bad. One can keep them for a week in the refrigerator.

Fresh mushrooms are dried in the sun or even at 55-60°C for 8 hours. After drying, they are packaged and sealed, otherwise they absorb moisture that spoils them. Mushroom canning is preferred only in the button state. However, one can find 3-4 kg. yield/mushroom bed.

2. Dhingri Cultivation:

The steps involved in the cultivation of dhingri (Pleurotus spp.; Fig. 37.3) are: choice of substrate, bed preparation and cultivation, aftercare of beds, harvesting and marketing.

Choice of substrate:


Chopped rice straw is best; Others can be crushed corn cobs, wheat straw, rye straw, dried and pulverized grasses, compost used in growing mushrooms and wood logs, etc.

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Bed preparation and cultivation:

The chopped rice straw is soaked in a tank of water for 8 to 12 hours, taken out and washed again with fresh water, and excess water is allowed to drain off. Now the substrate is filled in wooden trays of approximately 1 x 1/2 x 1/4 meter. The entire surface of the substrate filled with trays is sprinkled with seed.

After laying is complete, the tray is covered with a polyethylene sheet and water is sprayed once or twice a day or as needed to maintain sufficient humidity in the tray.

However, the fruiting bodies of the mushrooms, usually called flushed mushrooms, begin to appear after 10 to 15 days and the polyethylene sheet is removed when the mushrooms begin to appear. Mushroom production continues up to 1-11/2 months (30-45 days) after the appearance of the first mushroom flush.


After bedding care:

Water is sprayed as and when needed; the temperature and relative humidity are kept at 25 ± 5°C and 85-90% respectively in the production room; aeration is provided; and 0.1% malathion and 0.2% ditane Z-78 are sprayed to control insects, pests and other diseases.

Harvest and Marketing:

The mushroom is harvested when the crown reaches about 8-10 cm. in diameter. Harvesting is done by twisting so that no broken pieces remain on the trays, otherwise microbial rot usually begins and spreads to other fungi.

Harvested mushrooms are dried in the sun or in an oven at 55-60°C for 8 hours. After drying, they are packaged, as otherwise they absorb moisture and spoil. However, yields of 3-4 kg/tray can be found.

3. Mushroom cultivation:

The steps involved in growing mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus; (Fig. 37.4) are: substrate and its preparation, bed preparation and harvest, post-bed care, and harvest and marketing.

(i) Substrate and its Preparation:

The preferred substrate for growing mushrooms in our country is wheat compost or rice straw.


Wheat straw 300 kg, wheat bran 25 kg, ammonium sulfate 9 kg, superphosphate 3 kg, urea 3 kg, muriate of potash 3.5 g, gypsum 30 kg. sawdust 30 kgs., zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) 10 gms., lindane or pelusa or gamma B.H.C. one kilo and malathion 200 c.c.

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Compost preparation:


The soil on which the compost is prepared must be made of cement and clean concrete, provided with a roof to avoid rain and the temperature due to sunlight. Now, first of all, the wheat straw is moistened for about 48 hours. Wheat bran, ammonium sulfate, superphosphate, urea, and muriate of potash are mixed into sawdust.

This mixture (called a fertilizer heap) is properly watered for about a day. The next day, the mix is ​​mixed with the irrigated wheat straw and piled in a neat pile 11/2 x 1 x 1 meter in size. It is well watered but the water should not seep from below. If possible, this pile is covered with a polyethylene sheet. The temperature of the sheep in the flock rises to 78°C on the second to third day.

Compost Turning:

The first turning is done on the sixth day. Compost about a foot deep is discarded from the outside and top and piled to one side. Again the same process is repeated until a new stack is found. Meanwhile, add a little water so that no dry stain remains.

Sometimes the compost medium turns white due to excessive heat produced. White compost is known as 'fire fang'. The second turning is similar to the first and takes place on the 10th.

The third turning is carried out on day 13 and 10 kg of gypsum are added during this. This fourth, fifth turning is carried out on days 16 and 19 respectively and 10 kg of gypsum are added in each of the two turnings. The sixth flip takes place on the 22nd.

If the smell of ammonia comes out, give the compost two more turns so that there is no smell of ammonia. However, in this compost the rest of the ingredients, 200 c.c. of malathion and one liter/kg of fluff, are added to prevent insect infestation.

(ii) Bed preparation and cultivation:

The compost is now filled into wooden trays, each 1 x 1/2 x 1/4 meter, up to 16-18 cm, firmly pressed and lightly watered. The trays are arranged one above the other in tiers in the pasteurization room. The temperature in the pasteurization room is raised to 60 °C and is maintained for a period of approximately two days, after which the trays are transferred to the production room, which has a temperature of 24 °C.

Small pieces of commercially produced roe are inoculated into the compost bed. After spawning, the bed is covered with clean, clean newspaper moistened with water. It is important that the newspapers are always wet. Good white cottony growth is observed on the surface of the compost under the newspaper after 10-15 days. The newspaper is removed after 20 days and now the trays are 'cased'.

Lining denotes the covering of beds with soil. The lining soil can be prepared with three parts of common soil and one part of sand (with a little peat if available), and of natural pH, i.e. 7. The soil is sterilized/semi-sterilized before lining to a pressure of approximately 20 pounds for two hours or more. by heating in a drum to a temperature of approximately 90°C or by the use of a 5% formalin solution.

Underlayment is laid over beds up to 3/4 – 1″ high. The tubed trays are irrigated by sprinkler. However, lining the beds is essential as it induces the formation of fruiting bodies.

It takes about a month to get the fruiting bodies to appear in the beds. Temperature below 15 °C favors the production of fruiting bodies, so the temperature in the production room should be kept below said temperature after fruiting bodies start to appear in the beds.

(iii) After bedding care:

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Humidity is maintained at around 70-80%. It is necessary to water twice a day with a very fine spray, keeping the nozzle up and letting the drops fall very slowly. After 10 days it can be sprayed with 0.1% lint and 0.2% Dithane Z-78 to prevent insects and other pathogens etc.

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What is the current status of mushroom cultivation in India? ›

At present, the production of mushrooms is increasing at the rate of 7%. Whereas the growth rate in India is between 30-40%. Moreover, mushroom production is expected to increase to 6 lakh metric tonnes by 2025.

What are the problems with mushroom cultivation in India? ›

Constraints in mushroom production is highly perishable, lack of marketing facility, infected spawn, non-possession of technical knowledge, low risk bearing capacity, lack of technical guidance, lack of flow of information, non-availability of spawn in time, non-availability of quality straw, lack of involvement of ...

What is the economics of mushroom cultivation in India? ›

Presently, the production of mushrooms is increasing at a rate of 7 per cent the world own whereas in India this growth rate is 30 to 40 per cent. It is expected that the world production of Page 6 4 mushroom would increase to 70 lakh tonnes per annum by the year 2010 and to 110 lakh tonnes by the year 2021.

What is the problem in mushroom cultivation? ›

First look at the common problems in growing mushrooms:

The use of low-quality spawn. Bad substrate. Improper conditions for growth (temperature, moisture, light, etc.) Lack of patience.

What is the importance of mushroom cultivation in India? ›

1) Highly Nutritious food

It is one of the good sources of Protein, which contains less of carbohydrate and fat. The most population in India suffers due to protein- malnutrition, as sufficient requirement of proteinaceous supplement is not available in daily diet.

Which is the best season to grow mushroom in India? ›

The best growing season is from March or April to September or October in mountainous places, and from September or October to March or April in lowland regions. Oyster mushrooms are grown with minimum effort as compared with the button mushroom.

Which is the most common mushroom which is cultivated in India? ›

White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is the most popular variety of mushroom grown in India.

How much land is required for mushroom farming in India? ›

How much land is required for mushroom farming? Ans. In around one square meter of mycelium, you can grow 30 kg of mushrooms. In short, a room with 560 m2 can grow about 17 tons of mushrooms.

Is mushroom farming tax free in India? ›

Inventaa Industries Pvt Ltd (supra), submitted that a similar issue had been considered by the Special Bench of Tribunal and after considering relevant facts held that growing white button mushrooms is an agricultural activity and income derived from said activity is agricultural income which is exempt from tax.

Why mushroom is costly in India? ›

Because they are found only in high mountainous areas. Moreover, this is why prominent companies and hotels buy this expensive and rare vegetable at such a whopping cost. It grows only when the snow thaws on the mountains and is produced by lightning strikes.

Which mushroom farming is expensive in India? ›

Gucchi mushrooms grow in clusters on logs in decaying wood and are mostly cultivated in parts of India like Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Jammu and Kashmir. They are rich in minerals, iron, copper, and vitamin D, and are hence highly valued across the world.

How much money is needed to start a mushroom farm? ›

Usually, it's possible to start a mushroom farm for between $3,000 for a small operation and $100,000 for a commercial grow. This is a low investment as far as starter crops are concerned.

What is the important in mushroom cultivation? ›

Mushroom cultivation is much useful in recycling of organic waste like paddy straw and other farm residues for better utilization as substrates for growing mushrooms. The spent waste of the substrates is used as very good manure enriched with the nutrients.

What are the challenges of the mushroom industry? ›

Although mushrooms production increased, there are some problems confronting by the mushroom growers during cultivation and marketing including lack of cultivation house, unavailability of good spawn, capital shortage, lack of equipment's, lack of available market and promotion in local level, lack of storage ...

What is the purpose of mushroom cultivation? ›

Mushroom cultivation can help reduce vulnerability to poverty and strengthens livelihoods through the generation of a fast yielding and nutritious source of food and a reliable source of income.

Who started mushroom cultivation in India? ›

History of Mushroom cultivation in India

B.C. Roy (1896-1897) of the Calcutta Medical College carried chemical analysis of the local mushrooms prevalent in caves or mines. Sir David Prain (1908) made thorough search for edible mushrooms from various parts of India.

Who introduced mushroom cultivation in India? ›

In 1961, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi, started first cultivation of the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) in Solan. The ICAR funded research scheme was established in Solan, Punjab, Bengaluru and New Delhi in the year 1971. The Solan city is called as “Mushroom City of India”.

Which mushroom contributes major part of total India's production? ›

Out of the total mushroom produced, white button mushroom share is 73% followed by oyster mushroom (16%), paddy straw mushroom (7%) and milky mushroom (3%).

How much is the most expensive mushroom in India? ›


Which state is largest producer of mushroom in India? ›

According to the data released by the National Horticulture Board, Bihar has become the largest mushroom-producing state in the country.

Who is the king of mushroom in India? ›

Fresh Eryngii also known as King Oyster Mushrooms also known as Royal Trumpet, grown in Bangalore without chemicals.

Which mushroom is most expensive? ›

Summary of the 10 Most Expensive Mushrooms in the World
1The Caterpillar Fungus$20,000-$50,000 per pound
2Alba White Truffles$4,000 per pound
3French Black Truffles$1,000-$1,500 per pound
4Porcini Mushrooms$40-70 per pound
6 more rows
Apr 29, 2023

What is the price of 1kg mushroom in India? ›

Buy Fresho Mushroom Button 1 Kg Online at the Best Price of Rs 150 - bigbasket.

Can we export mushroom from India? ›

India exports most of it's Dried mushroom to France, Germany and Switzerland. The top 3 exporters of Dried mushroom are China with 9,519 shipments followed by Vietnam with 3,438 and Germany at the 3rd spot with 2,971 shipments.

Is mushroom business profitable in India? ›

If you start growing it in a 100 square feet area then you can earn a profit of Rs 1 lakh to Rs 5 lakh per year. So Here is all about the Mushroom Farming Profits in India. If you maintain properly, you will get good profits.

Is there profit in mushroom farming? ›

12,000 pounds of mushrooms at $6 a pound could make you $72,000 in a year's time. Simply put, growing gourmet mushrooms for profit can be a way to make a nice extra income, or can even be a new career.

How can I sell my mushroom in India? ›

Thus, selling your mushrooms at the local farmer's markets can be extremely lucrative, as customers are willing to pay a fair price for the quality. 3. Selling online- This is a great way to sell your mushrooms if you are looking for convenience.

Which country imports mushroom from India? ›

France is the largest buyer of Mushroom exported from India.

How much does a mushroom bag cost in India? ›

Rectangular TRANSPARENT Mushroom Growing Bag at Rs 155/kg in Mumbai | ID: 25121590530.

What is the price of Florida mushroom in India? ›

Dry Florida Oyster Mushroom, Packaging Type: Loose at Rs 1200/kg in Mumbai.

Which farming is most profitable in India? ›

Tree farms are one of the most profitable farming business ideas in the country. There is a massive demand for fruits, but then there is also a demand for timber to be used as raw material. If you have a lot of land, you can grow various trees and sell the produce for profit.

Which is the mushroom city of India? ›

Solan was the capital of the erstwhile princely state, Baghat. It is known as the “Mushroom city of India” because of the vast mushroom farming in the area as well as the Directorate of Mushroom Research (DMR) situated at Chambaghat.

Which is the most expensive crop to grow in India? ›

Saffron. Saffron is the most expensive crop in the world.

Is mushroom farming difficult? ›

However, once you've had some practice, growing mushrooms isn't any more difficult than other types of gardening. You might even find it easier than growing plants! You can cut through some of the difficulty and anxiety associated with growing mushrooms for the first time by getting a kit.

Is it hard to start a mushroom business? ›

Mushroom Farming is Difficult

Despite how easy it is to start growing oyster mushrooms or lion's mane from ready to fruit blocks, other mushrooms can be very difficult to grow successfully. Mushroom farming can be very labor-intensive as well.

Is mushroom farming easy? ›

The answer is yes! Mushrooms produce a high yield and can grow in small spaces, making them one of the easiest and most lucrative crops for even beginner growers. There are many types of mushrooms that can be grown at home, and some species are easier to grow than others.

What is a mushroom farmer called? ›

A mycologist is someone who works with fungi, which are living organisms such as molds, yeast, and mushrooms.

Where in the world is mushroom cultivation the most? ›

China is the main producer of cultivated, edible mushrooms.

Why are mushroom prices so high? ›

As the COVID-19 pandemic left more and more people unemployed, country-wide labor shortages led to mushroom growers experiencing difficulties in harvesting their produce.

What are any two disadvantages of mushroom? ›

While consuming mushrooms, it is important to identify them as edible as some wild varieties can even cause poisoning. Certain mushrooms can cause anxiety, hallucinations, tiredness and other cognitive symptoms. Mushrooms are also known to cause stomach problems, nausea, and skin allergies in some people.

Is there a mushroom shortage? ›

There is currently a mushroom shortage in the country, with a number of farms having closed, while a fire hit major producer Denny Mushrooms last year. Denny estimates that about 20% less is being supplied weekly. Furthermore, load shedding and increased input costs create challenges for producers.

How can I improve my mushroom cultivation? ›

Protein-rich supplements such as cottonseed meal, soybean meal, alfa-alfa meal, feather meal, etc., have been found to increase Mushroom production. Supplementation can be done either during spawning or after spawning before casing. The latter is more beneficial.

What is the theory of mushroom cultivation? ›

Mushroom cultivation is a process utilizing waste materials such as horse manure, chicken manure, pig manure, wheat straw, rice straw, corn cobs, wood bark, sawdust, and cottonseed hulls to produce a delicious and nutritious food. Therefore, it can be considered as a twofold beneficial operation.

What are the benefits of mushroom soil? ›

Advantages of Using Mushroom Compost
  • Improve Soil Water Retention. ...
  • Eco-Friendly. ...
  • Improves Soil Structure. ...
  • Mild Nitrogen Content. ...
  • Slow-Release Fertilizer. ...
  • High in Calcium. ...
  • Effective Mulch. ...
  • Attracts Earthworms.
Dec 20, 2022

Which country has highest demand of mushroom? ›

China is the largest mushroom and truffle producer in the world with 7,797,929 tonnes production volume per year. Italy comes second with 683,620 tonnes yearly production.

What is the scope of mushroom farming in India? ›

Mushroom cultivation is one of the most significant agribusinesses in the world. It is also very profitable as it can be started with a low investment and small space. Mushroom cultivation is an up and coming source of alternative income for many agripreneurs in India.

Which is the high rate mushroom in India? ›

This mushroom is also known as 'sponge mushroom' and is unmatchable in taste. Gucchi mushroom is found naturally in the forests of various districts of Himachal Pradesh, including Chamba, Kullu, Shimla and Manali.

Which US state has the largest mushroom farm? ›

Based in Kennett Square, Pennsylvania — the Mushroom Capital of the World — Phillips Mushroom Farms is the largest grower of specialty mushrooms and a leader in overall mushroom production.

What is the most profitable mushroom to grow in USA? ›

If you're looking for the most profitable mushroom to farm, you're likely considering Shiitake mushrooms. These sell at around $12 per pound, making them the most profitable type of mushroom to farm, especially when considering the demand. However, you might also consider growing gourmet Oyster mushrooms.

What is the most common mushroom USA? ›

Button Mushroom

Button mushrooms are the most common type of mushroom you'll find at the grocery store—in fact, an estimated 90% of the mushrooms we eat in the US are of the button variety.

How much does it cost to start a mushroom farm in India? ›

The total cost of mushroom cultivation in India is approx Rs. 1,50,000. That includes Scrap Wooden Shelves (Rs. 20,000), Cost of Construction for rooms (Rs.

Is mushroom farming taxable in India? ›

The assessee was treating the income from growing mushrooms as "income from agriculture" and hence exempt u/s. 10(1) of the Income Tax Act, 1961 [Act].

How much profit in mushroom farming in India? ›

If you start growing it in a 100 square feet area then you can earn a profit of Rs 1 lakh to Rs 5 lakh per year.

What is the most profitable mushroom in the world? ›

Oyster mushrooms, a type of gourmet mushroom, are one of the most profitable gourmet mushroom available.

What is the price of mushroom in India? ›

180g - 200 g Online At Best Price of Rs 49 - bigbasket.

What is the price of mushroom growing bags in India? ›

Rectangular TRANSPARENT Mushroom Growing Bag at Rs 155/kg in Mumbai | ID: 25121590530.


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