Explanation of Porter's 5 forces and use of the model (2023)

What are Porter's five powers?

Porter's Five Forces is a model that identifies and analyzes five competitive forces that shape each industry, helping to determine an industry's weaknesses and strengths. Five Forces Analysis is often used to identify the structure of an industry to determine corporate strategy.

The Porter model can be applied to allSegmentof business to understand the level of competition within the industry and to improve a company's long-term profitability. The Five Forces Model is named after Michael E. Porter, a professor at Harvard Business School.

Porter's 5 forces are:

  1. competition in the industry
  2. Potential of new market entrants in the industry
  3. power of suppliers
  4. power of customers
  5. Threat of substitute products

The central theses

  • Porter's Five Forces is a framework for analyzing a company's competitive environment.
  • Porter's Five Forces is a commonly used guideline for assessing the competitive forces affecting a variety of economic sectors.
  • It was developed in 1979 by Professor Michael E. Porter of Harvard Business School and has since become an important tool for managers.
  • These forces include the number and power of a company's competitors, potential entrants, suppliers, customers and substitutes that affect a company's profitability.
  • Five Forces Analysis can be used to guide business strategy to increase competitive advantage.


(Video) Porter's 5 Forces EXPLAINED | B2U | Business To You

Porter's Five Powers

Understanding Porter's five forces

Porter's Five Forces is a business analysis model that helps explain why different industries are able to sustain different levels of profitability. The model was published in Michael E. Porter's book,Competitive Strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors1979.

The five forces model is often used to analyze a company's industry structure as well as its corporate strategy. Porter identified five undeniable forces at play in shaping every market and industry around the world,with some caveats. The five forces are commonly used to measure the level of competition, attractiveness, and profitability of an industry or market.

1. Competition in the Industry

The first of the five forces relates to the number of competitors and their ability to undercut a company. The greater the number of competitors and the number of equivalent products and services they offer, the less power a company has.

Suppliers and buyers are looking for a companycontestif they are able to offer a better deal or lower prices. Conversely, when competitive rivalry is low, a firm has greater power to charge higher prices and set terms and conditions in order to generate higher sales and profits.

2. Potential for new market entrants in an industry

The power of a company is also influenced by the power of new entrants. The less time and money it takes for a competitor to enter a company's market and be an effective competitor, the more an established company's position could be significantly weakened.

(Video) The Porter's 5 Forces Model - Simplest explanation ever

An industry with high barriers to entry is ideal for existing companies in that industry as the company could charge higher prices and negotiate better terms.

3. Supplier power

The next factor in the Porter model deals with lightnessDeliverycan drive up input costs. It is influenced by the number of suppliers of key inputs of a good or service, how unique those inputs are, and how much it would cost a company to switch suppliers. The fewer suppliers an industry has, the more dependent a company would be on one supplier.

This gives the supplier more power and can drive up input costs and push for other trade advantages. On the other hand, if there are many suppliers or low switching costs between competing suppliers, a company can keep its input costs lower and increase its profits.

4. Customer power

Customers' ability to lower prices or their level of power is one of the five forces. It is influenced by how many buyers or customers a company has, how important each customer is, and how much it would cost a company to find new customers or markets for its production.

A small and powerfulcustomer basemeans each customer has more bargaining power to get lower prices and better deals. A company with many, smaller, independent customers will find it easier to charge higher prices to increase profitability.

The Five Forces model can help companies increase their profits, but they must continually monitor any changes in the Five Forces and adjust their business strategy.

(Video) The Explainer: The 5 Forces That Make Companies Successful

5. Threat of Substitutes

The last of the five forces focuses on substitutes. Substitute goods or services that can be used in place of a company's products or services pose a threat. Companies that produce goods or services for which there are no close substitutes will have more power to raise prices and get favorable terms to secure. When good substitutes are available, customers have the option of not buying a company's product and a company's power can be weakened.

Understanding Porter's Five Forces and how they apply to an industry can enable a company to adjust its business strategy to make better use of its resources and generate greater returns for its investors.

What are Porter's five powers used for?

Porter's Five Forces model helps managers and analysts understand the competitive landscape a company faces and how a company is positioned within it.

Is Porter's Five Forces Model Still Relevant?

Yes, although it was developed more than 40 years ago, the Five Forces Model is still a useful tool for understanding how a company stacks up against the competition.

What are some disadvantages of Porter's five powers?

The Five Forces Modelhas some disadvantages, including that it is backward-looking and its results are mostly only relevant in the short-term; this constraint is reinforced by the effects of globalization.

Another major drawback is the tendency to try to use the five forces to analyze a single company as opposed to a broad industry as the framework intended.

Another problem is that the framework is structured to place each company in an industry group, while some companies span multiple industries. Another issue is the need to value all five forces equally when some industries are not as heavily influenced by all five.

(Video) Porter's Five Forces - A Practical Example

What is the difference between Porter's Five Forces and SWOT Analysis?

Porter's 5 Forces and SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats) Analysis are both tools used to analyze and make strategic decisions. Businesses, analysts and investors use Porter's 5 forces to analyze the competitive environment within an industry while tending to: aSWOT-Analyseto look deeper into an organization to analyze its internal potential.

The final result

Porter's Five Forces Framework defines the key criteria to consider when considering a company's competitive landscape. High threat levels usually signal that future gains may deteriorate and vice versa. For example, an early startup in a fast-growing industry could quickly be shut out if there are no barriers to entry. Likewise a company that sells products for which there are numerousErsatzwill not be able to trainpricing powerto improve its margins and it may even lose market share to its competitors.

The reason Porter's model has become so widespread is that it forces companies to look beyond their own immediate business and their industry as a whole when making long-term plans. Porter's still plays an important role in this, but it shouldn't be the only tool in the toolbox when it comes to building a business strategy.


What is the Porter's five forces model briefly describe and explain? ›

These forces include the number and power of a company's competitive rivals, potential new market entrants, suppliers, customers, and substitute products that influence a company's profitability. Five Forces analysis can be used to guide business strategy to increase competitive advantage.

What is the main purpose of Porter's 5 forces model group of answer choices? ›

Porter's five forces help to identify where power lies in a business situation. This is useful both in understanding the strength of an organisation's current competitive position, and the strength of a position that an organisation may look to move into.

What is Porter's five forces model quizlet briefly explain? ›

the Five Forces model helps business people understand the relative attractiveness of an industry and the industry's competitive pressure in terms of buyer power, supplier power, threat of substitute products and services, threat of new entrants, rivalry among existing competitors.

What does Porter's five forces model determine quizlet? ›

Michael Porter's Five Forces Model of Competition indicates that the five forces interact to determine the intensity or strength of competition, which ultimately determines the profitability of the industry and the probability of earning above-average returns.

What is the most important force in Porter's five forces and why? ›

Of Porter's Five Forces, competitive rivalry has the strongest influence on whether entering an industry would be profitable. When rivalry is high, there are many competitors, and those competitors have a high cost associated with exiting the industry.

What is Porter's five forces model Why do organizations use Porter's five forces? ›

Porter's Five Forces is a tool for understanding the competitiveness of your business environment. The five forces are: competitive rivalry, new entrants, power of buyers, power of suppliers and threat of substitutes. Its purpose is to identify a company's potential profitability and adjust its strategy.

What is a real life example of Porter's five forces? ›

One example of Porters Five Forces is the Vision 2050 Report by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). The report shows how airlines make dismal profits while vendors and customers make significant gains. Airfares become cheaper, travel becomes safer and the quality of on-board products get better.

What is strategy Porter summary? ›

Strategy: Performing different activities from rivals' or performing similar activities in different ways. Porter states that a company can outperform rivals only if it can establish a difference it can preserve. It must deliver greater value to customers or create comparable value at a lower cost, or do both.

What is Porter's five forces model PDF? ›

Porter's Five Forces (Dudovskiy, 2017) 1) Threat of New Entrants 2) Bargaining power of buyers 3) Bargaining power of suppliers 4) Rivalry among existing firms 5) Threat of substitute (Giaquinto, 2018).

What is the competitive forces model of Porter's 5 forces? ›

The model is more commonly referred to as the Porter's Five Forces Model, which includes the following five forces: intensity of rivalry, threat of potential new entrants, bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers, and threat of substitute goods and/or services.

Which of the following is Porter's five forces model? ›

Porter identified five factors that act together to determine the nature of competition within an industry. These are Suppliers bargaining Power, Buyer's bargaining Power, Competitive Rivalry, threat of substitution and threat of new entry.

What is one of Porter's five forces that determines how attractive an industry is? ›

Porter described the five forces that can measure the long-term attractiveness of an industry. They forces are: Threat of New Entrants, Threat of Substitutes, Bargaining Power of Customers, Bargaining Power of Suppliers and Competitive Rivalry.

What are the activities according to Porter's model of business? ›

According to Porter, competitive advantages come from the processes a company has, such as marketing. The five key (primary) activities that generate higher profits include inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and services.

What is the most important factor in Porter's five forces model? ›

Regarded as the most expressive in Porter's 5 forces model, the rivalry between competitors is the major determining factor for market competitiveness.

Which is the most powerful of Porter's five forces framework? ›

Rivalry among competing firms is usually the most powerful of the five competitive forces.

What is a real life example of threat of new entrants? ›

Threat of New Entrants Explanation

An example of the threat of new entrants porter devised exists in the graphic design industry: there are very low barriers to entry. As new competitors flood the marketplace, have a plan to react before it impacts your business.

What is Porter's value chain analysis explain? ›

Porter's value chain is a business management concept developed by Michael Porter in his book Competitive Advantage (1985). It is based on a set of activities that a company performs in order to generate value for its customers. This strategy in turn leads to improved competitive advantage and greater profitability.

What is Porter's value chain activities with examples? ›

These activities relate to the development of the products and services of the organization, both internally and externally. Examples are IT, technological innovations and improvements and the development of new products based on new technologies. These activities create value using innovation and optimization.

What is Porter's best value strategy? ›

Sometimes called “focused differentiation,” the best-value focus strategy aims to offer a niche group of customers the products or services that meet their tastes and requirements better than rivals' products do.

What is the importance of Porter's 5 forces? ›

Michael Porter's Five Forces Model is a simple yet effective business analysis tool that is used to determine whether a strategy has the potential to be profitable in a company's competitive environment.

Is Porter's five forces still relevant today? ›

Despite its enduring popularity, Porter's Five Forces has come in for considerable criticism in recent years. The model is an important business tool that allows organizations to identify competitive pressures within an industry or market.

What does threat of new entrants mean? ›

The Threat of New Entrants Explained

When new competitors enter into an industry offering the same products or services, a company's competitive position will be at risk. Therefore, the threat of new entrants refers to the ability of new companies to enter into an industry.

What is an example of threat of new entrants? ›

Threat of New Entrants Explanation

An example of the threat of new entrants porter devised exists in the graphic design industry: there are very low barriers to entry. As new competitors flood the marketplace, have a plan to react before it impacts your business.

What are examples of competitive forces? ›

They include:
  • The threat of indirect competition—the availability of products that offer similar performance.
  • The possibility of new entrants into the marketplace.
  • Supplier pressure—where demand for inputs is high, suppliers can raise their prices.


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